When you are involved in the research process, whether it be for a short essay or research project, you will be engaging with other people's work, their words, ideas and arguments
This guide will:
- Explain how to construct references according to the Harvard Standard for a variety of different sources
- Give examples of how to present references in your text include a sample bibliography
This guide can be downloaded is a PDF version.
Contents of the guide:
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Citing Other People's Work
- How to Use Quotations
- Using Non-English Quotations
- International Sources
- Printed Sources
- Electronic Sources
- Audio Visual & Performance Sources
- Personal Communications
- Constructing References: Printed Images
- The List of Figures
- Sample Reference List
If you need further help with referencing or constructing a bibliography please contact your Subject Librarian.
Plagiarism, the representation of someone else’s ideas or words as your own, is a serious offence. When you write your own piece of work you must give credit to the sources, written or produced by others, which you have used. This will demonstrate the breadth of sources you have consulted and enable others to trace the knowledge that has informed your work.
The Harvard referencing system is also known as the Name/Date method as when you cite a reference in your text you use the name of the person or organization responsible for the information you have used and the date it was published or made available e.g. (Kotler, 2002).
This part of the guide will give examples of the main ways in which you might want to cite a reference within your piece of work.
Quotations of less than one line.
Include quotations of less than one line in the main body of the text within single inverted commas.
You may wish to include quotes from non-English sources in your written work. If you do this you can either translate the text or paraphrase the content in English.
When translating quotes you will need to write “(Own translation)” after the quote. For example:
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