When you are involved in the research process, whether it be for a short essay or research project, you will be engaging with other people's work, their words, ideas and arguments
This guide will:
- Explain how to construct references according to the Harvard Standard for a variety of different sources
- Give examples of how to present references in your text include a sample bibliography
This guide can be downloaded as a full PDF.
Contents of the guide:
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Citing Other People's Work
- How to Use Quotations
- Using Non-English Quotations
- International Sources
- Printed Sources
- Electronic Sources
- Audio Visual & Performance Sources
- Personal Communications
- Constructing References: Printed Images
- The List of Figures
- Sample Reference List
If you need further help with referencing or constructing a bibliography please contact your Subject Librarian.
Plagiarism, the representation of someone else’s ideas or words as your own, is a serious offence.
Your Bibliography and Citing Other People's Work
The Harvard referencing system uses a name and a date of publication to link citations to sources in a bibliography.
The bibliography is a list of references to all the sources that you have cited in your work, but may also include other sources that have informed your work but that have not been directed cited.
For the purposes of this guide the terms bibliography and reference list can be used interchangeably.
Citing in the text
This part of the guide will give examples of the main ways in which you might want to cite a reference within your piece of work. When quoting, paraphrasing or summarising, depending on the structure of the sentence, you can place the author's name in brackets alongside the date and page number, or alternatively place the author's name on the outside of the brackets.
You may wish to include quotes from non-English sources in your written work. If you do this you can either translate the text or paraphrase the content in English.