Electronic Sources


Web pages

References to a web site or page should be made up of the following elements:

Author/Organisation responsible for the website
(Year)
Title
[online]

Available from: web address - URL
[Accessed date]

It is often not possible to find all elements, however by following these guidelines as fully as possible consistency will be maintained throughout your reference list.

Examples:

National Museum Wales (n.d.). The process – from fleece to fabric. [online] Available from: http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/wool/the-process/ [Accessed 10 August 2010]

In the above sample a publication date could not be ascertained so n.d. was used to indicate no date.

Geoghegan, K. (2010). Sampling the Edinburgh Fringe for free. [online] Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-10917356 [Accessed 10 August 2010]

 

E-Journals and E-Newspaper articles

References to e-journals should include the following (use this format for e-newspaper articles):

Author's Surname, Initial(s)
Year of publication
Title of article
Title of journal
[online]
Date of publication (if ascertainable)
Volume number / Part number
Available from: web address - URL
[Accessed date]

Examples:

Jackson, K.M. (2000). Play it again and again: "Casablanca"'s impact on American mass media and popular culture. Journal of popular film and television. [online]. Winter 2000. Vol.27. No.4. Available from: http://iipaft.chadwyck.com/iipaft/htxview?template=basic-htx&content=fameset.htx&ACCESS=NEW&ALL=Y [Accessed 15 May 2007]

Kuspit, D. (2000). Antoni Tapies. Artforum. [online]. April 2000. Available from: http://www.artforum.com/archive/id=346&search=1999 [Accessed 6 January 2007].

 

E-Books

E-books accessed through AUB Library require your AUB username and password to log-in

Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
(Year of publication)
Title of book
[e-book]
Place of publication
Publisher
Available from: web address - URL
[Accessed date]

Example:

Sagers, J. (2006). Origins of Japanese wealth and power : reconciling confucianism and capitalism, 1830-1885 [e-book] New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Available from: AUB Library http://aub.ac.uk/library [Accessed 16 August 2010].



Free e-books/pdfs

For e-books or pdfs that can accessed through the internet

Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
(Year of publication)
Title of book
[e-book] or [pdf]
Place of publication (if available)
Publisher
Available from: web address - URL
[Accessed date]

Examples:

Carroll, L. (2008). Alice in wonderland. [e-book] Millennium Fulcrum. Available from: http://www.gutenberg.org [Accessed 16 August 2010]

Arts Council (2010). Joining up the dots: Dance agencies – thoughts on future direction. [pdf] London: Arts Council. Available from: http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/joining_up_the_dots_april_2010.pdf [Accessed 16 August 2010].



Kindle or e-book reader e-books

Author's Family Name, Initial(s)
(Year of Kindle or other e-book reader edition)
Title of book
[type of e-book reader used to access e-book] e.g Kindle or Kobo
Available from: web address - URL
[Accessed date] the date you first accessed the e-book

Example:

Smith, A. (2008). The wealth of nations. [Kindle e-book]. Available from: http://www.amazon.co.uk [Accessed 10 May 2012].

 

E-Images

When referencing an online image include the following. By right clicking over the image when on a PC or click and hold when on a Mac and selecting properties you will get the correct address (URL) and file extension:

Artist or image creator (if known)
Title or description of image
(Year of publication/creation)
[Online image]
Available from: web address (URL)
Filename and extension (if ascertainable)
[Accessed date]

Examples:

Dahl-Wolfe, L. Edith Sitwell. (1951). [Online image]. Available from: http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/amico/tn/ccp/ccp_.851030145_tn.jpg [Accessed 7 August 2007].

Goldsworthy, A. Stone River. (2001). [Online image]. Available from: http://www.stanford.edu/dept/ccva/goldsworthy.jpeg [Accessed 7 August 2007].

Martin Luther King Jr. (n.d.). [Online image]. Available from: http://members.aol.com/klove/images/martin.jpeg [Accessed 7 August 2007].

 

Interviews

For interviews conducted over the telephone, the following elements should be included:

Interviewee's Surname, Intial(s)
Year (in brackets)
Interviewee's job title / position
Interview / Telephone conversation
Date

Examples:

Interview:

Green, V. (1999). Organic Farming Policy Officer. Interview with author. 7 September.

Telephone conversation:

Longbridge, J. (2001). Opera South Public Relations Officer. Telephone conversation with author. 5 May.

 

Emails

Use for personal emails and employ the subject line as the 'title':

Sender
Sender's email address (in brackets)
Day Month Year
Subject of message (in italics)
Email to recipient's name
Recipients email address

Example:

Albin, L. (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.). 9 September 2010. E-book report. Email to J. Waite. (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

 

Blogs

Family Name, Initial(s) or bloggers online identity
(Year of publication)
Title of blog entry
Date blog entry written
Title of Blog [online]
Available from: web address URL. [Date accessed]

Example:

Fry, S. (2008). Wii is a kind of magic. 29 August 2008. Blog: blessays, blogs and blisquisitions [online]. Available from: http://stephenfry.com/blog/  [Accessed 10 September 2008].

 

Discussion lists/message boards

Family Name, Initial(s) or online identity
(Year of publication)
Title of message
Date message added to list
Title of Discussion group [online]
Available from: web address URL
[Date accessed]

Example:

Fragoletto. (2010). The fool. 1 April 2010. Arts and ideas [online]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/mbradio3/ [Accessed 10 August 2010].

 

Podcasts or archived television programmes e.g. Box of Broadcasts (BoB)

Author
(Year of publication)
Title [online]
Available from: Web address - URL
[Date Accessed].

Example:

Tate (2008). Modern paint podcast [online]. Available from: http://www.tate.org.uk/learning/learnonline/modernpaints/ [Accessed 10 September 2008].

 

Tweets

Author
(Year)
Date of Tweet
Title of website [online]
Available from: Web address - URL
[Date accessed]

Example:

Navarro, J. (2012). 11th January. Twitter [online]. Available from: https://twitter.com/#!/search/haptics [Accessed 19 January 2012].

 

Wikis

Wiki Name
(Year of publication)
Title of article [online]
Available from: Web address - URL
[Date accessed]

Example:

Wikipedia. (2008). Lighthouse [online]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lighthouse [Accessed 10 September 2008].

 

YouTube videos

Screen Name
(Year of publication)
Title [online]
Available from Web address - URL
[Date accessed]

Example:

Ninecreative. (2008). Esquire e-ink cover. [online]. Available from: http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=KMb9tZ1TP8Q&feature=related [Accessed 10 September 2008].

 

Mobile apps

Originator/author
Year (in brackets) – use access year if date not available
Title of app (in italics)
[mobile app]
[Date accessed]

Example:

BBC (2013). BBC News.[mobile app] [Accessed 23 January 2013].

 

Mobile app content

Originator/author
Year (in brackets) – use access year if date not available
Title of app content
Title of app (in italics)
[mobile app]
[Date accessed]

Example:

BBC (2013). Major changes to A-levels planned. BBC News.[mobile app] [Accessed 23 January 2013].