Audio Visual Sources



Film can be viewed on a number of different mediums but always include the following elements in your entry:

Year of film release (in brackets)
Title (in italics)
[Type of medium from which viewed]
Place of production
Production organisation

Examples of an entry for film watched at cinema, on DVD and video are as follows:


Lucas, G. (2002). Star wars: episode II - attack of the clones. [Film]. USA: Lucasfilm.


Allen, W. (1986). Hannah and her sisters. [VHS Video tape].USA: MGM Home Entertainment.


Burton, T. (1988). Beetlejuice. [Digital Video Disc]. London: Warner Home Video.

Broadcast media - tv, radio and off-air recording

Your bibliographic references should follow these guidelines, specific examples for each medium are given below:

Series title (if appropriate) (in italics)
Series number (if appropriate)
Programme title (in italics)
Year (in brackets)
Date of transmission


Television programmes:

Restoration. Episode 1. (2003). BBC2. 8 August. [Television]

Best of Glastonbury 2003 (2003). BBC4. 8 August. [Television]

Friends. The one where Phoebe runs. (2003). E4. 8 August. [Television]

Radio programmes:

The Friday play. Ruby on Tuesday. (2003). BBC Radio 4. 8 August. [Radio]

Off-air recordings:

Arena. Budd Schulberg: a contender. (2001). BBC2. 19 May. [VHS Video tape]

Interviews broadcast on tv and radio

Entries should include the following information:

Name of person interviewed
Year (in brackets)
Interview by [name of interviewer]
Programme title (in italics)


McMaster, B. (2003). Interview by Mariella Frostrup. The Radio 2 Arts Programme. BBC Radio 2. 8 August. [Radio]

Howard, M. (2003). Interview by Peter Sissons. Breakfast with Frost. BBC 1. 10 August. [Television]

Musical Recordings

Include these elements in a bibliographic entry for a musical recording:

Recording artist/s
Year (in brackets)
Title (in italics)
Composed by [name of composer] if appropriate
Medium e.g. [Compact disc] or [MP3]
Place of production (if applicable)
Producing organisation


The Cure. (1992). Wish. [Compact disc]. London: Fiction Records.

Orchestre symphonique de Montreal. (1988). Concerto for orchestra. Composed by Bela Bartok. [Compact disc]. London: Decca.

Theatre  - production of a play

Year of performance (in brackets)
Title (in italics)
Directed by
Performance company
Performance venue
Location of performance
[Date performance viewed]


Shakespeare, W. (2008). Hamlet.  Directed by Gregory Doran. Royal Shakespeare Company. The Courtyard Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon. [24 July 2008]

Theatre programmes, prompt books, etc

Theatre group/performer
Year of publication (in brackets)
Title of performance (in italics)
Date of performance
Type of material e.g. programme/prompt book
Performance venue
Location of venue


The Royal Shakespeare Company. (1993). William Shakespeare’s The Tempest', 12 May 1993, programme,The Swan: Stratford-upon-Avon


Surname, Initials of artist/s
Year of the exhibition or your viewing of the piece of work in brackets
Title of the work a comma and the year the work was produced in italics
Art or exhibit type in square brackets
Name of the exhibition in inverted commas (if appropriate)
Place of exhibition
Museum, gallery or exhibiting institution
Exhibition dates


Bompas and Parr (2013). The waft that woos, 2012. [Installation]. Stratford-upon-Avon: Royal Shakespeare Theatre, 6 October 2012 - 7 April 2013.

Batchelor, D. (2004). Drawings (Dollies), 1998. [Painting]. ‘Shiny Dirty’ exhibition. Birmingham: Ikon Gallery, 4 February – 28 March 2004.

National Portrait Gallery (2012). ‘Marilyn Monroe: a British love affair’ exhibition. London: National Portrait Gallery, 29 September 2012 - 24 March 2013.