When you are involved in the research process, whether it is for a short essay or a longer research project, you will be engaging with other people's work; their words, ideas and arguments.
This guide will:

  • Explain how to construct references according to the Harvard Standard for a variety of different sources
  • Give examples of how to present references in your text, including a sample reference list


New from September 2015


Reference lists must contain only sources that that have been cited directly in an assignment. This means that where there is an in-text citation there is also a reference list entry.

However, in addition, a bibliography should be included to list sources that have been used to read around a topic, but have not been referred to directly in the body of the assignment.


This guide can be downloaded as a  full PDF.

The web version of the guide is also available via the links under the 'Referencing' menu above.

Contents of the guide:

  • Avoiding Plagiarism and Citing Other People's Work
  • How to Use Quotations
  • Using Non-English Quotations and International Sources
  • Referencing Printed Sources
  • Referencing Printed Images
  • Referencing Electronic Sources
  • Referencing Audio Visual & Performance Sources
  • Referencing Personal Communications
  • Creating a list of Figures
  • A sample reference list

If you need further help with referencing or constructing a bibliography please contact your Subject Librarian.